Fanguy & Costley

Creating a Framework for Understanding and Defining Flipped Learning

Mik Fanguy, EFL Department, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST)
Jamie Costley, Institute of Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russia


Although flipped instruction is becoming increasingly common, there is still discussion and debate regarding how to define it and distinguish it from other forms of instruction. This article proposes a framework with which to visualize the constituent parts of blended learning and to define what makes a course “flipped.” The definition of flipped instruction provided by this framework can be summarized as instruction that provides large amounts of information online along with face-to-face (F2F) engagement but provides little information during F2F meetings and has relatively low online interaction. This article also presents the results of an empirical study (n = 54) in which students in a flipped scientific writing course participated in an online discussion forum, and a correlation was found between posting discussion topics and scores on in-class group writing assignments. A further connection was found between scores on these group writing assignments and student performance on individual writing assignments. Based on these results, the study recommends that online discussion forums can be used to better connect the online and F2F components of a flipped course.

Keywords: flipped classrooms, online discussion forum, online interaction, online video lecture, Korea

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