Mohammad, et al

Do Students Have Equal Perceptions of e-learning During the COVID-19 Pandemic? A Cross-Sectional Study Investigated the Differences in Students’ Perceptions Towards the Determinants That Influence Sole e-learning Use

Rasheed Mohammad Nassr, School of Computing and Digital Technology, Birmingham City University, UK 
Omer S. Alkhnbashi   1. Information and Computer Science Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals,Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabi  2. Interdisciplinary Research Center for Intelligent Secure Systems (IRC-ISS), KFUPM, Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia
Selvakumar Manickam, National Advanced IPv6, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Pulau Penang, Malaysia Alia Ahmed Aldossary, Computer Science Department, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, KSA
Doaa M. Bamasoud, Department of Information Systems, College of Computing and Information Technology, University of Bisha, Bisha 61922, Saudi Arabia
Ungku Nurshakira binti Ungku Amiruddin, MIIT, Universiti Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia


Lockdowns due to the COVID-19 pandemic have forced universities to migrate entirely to eLearning to deliver classes. Students have found themselves using either synchronous, asynchronous, or mixed mode learning methods based on their universities’ preferences. Many studies that investigated difficulties during the lockdown have been mainly concerned about technical difficulties. The reports lacked the investigation of differences among students’ groups, with a few exceptions that highlighted differences among male and female students. Moreover, existing studies were found to focus on singular dimensions (TAM, IS success model, etc.). This study perceives that students, based on the various groups they belong to, can show different levels of perceptions towards determinants that influence the usage of eLearning. This study investigated differences among students in terms of determinants from TRI, TAM, and IS success model. A total of 915 participants from Malaysia and Saudi Arabia reported their perceptions. The findings reported in this study showed significant differences among participants, in particular, among groups of gender, age, country, and eLearning mode. It is noticeable that participants who used the asynchronous mode of eLearning gave more weight to information quality, system quality, service quality, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, innovation, optimism, satisfaction, and intention to use. Meanwhile, participants who used the synchronous mode experienced more discomfort. It could be said that the significant differences between the usage of synchronous and asynchronous modes should be considered for better quality of online learning.   

Keywords: eLearning, covid-19 pandemic, Malaysia, Saudi, Students’ perceptions, TAM, TRI, IS success model

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